Here is a example of a cesaro sum used when a series fails to converge in the usual sense of a sum.

sum((-1)^n*(n^(1/n)-a), n = 1 .. infinity) has a cesaro sum of 1/2*(a+2MRB constant-1).

Proof:

We are given that S= sum((-1)^n*(n^(1/n)-a), n = 1 .. infinity) .

Expanding the infinite series we get S=(a-1)+(2^(1/2)-a)+(a-3^(1/3))+(4^(1/4)-a)+... .

Collecting the a's and the surds we see that S=a-a+a-a+...+(-1+2^(1/2)-3^(1/3)+4^(1/4)...) .

By Grandi's series we know that S=1/2*a+(-1+2^(1/2)-3^(1/3)+4^(1/4)...) .

Collecting the infinite series we get S=1/2*a+ sum((-1)^n*(n^(1/n)), n = 1 .. infinity).

Which can be shown to be S=1/2*a+ sum((-1)^n*(n^(1/n)-1), n = 1 .. infinity)-1/2 .

Thus, by factoring out the 1/2, we get S=1/2*(a+2 sum((-1)^n*(n^(1/n)-1), n = 1 .. infinity)-1) .

Therefore, S=1/2*(a+2MRB constant-1) .

In order to give symbolic results for that familly of sums Maple shouldmake this identify an integral part of maple in future versions!

Marvin Ray Burns

Original investigator of the MRB constant.