The well-known  combinat[composition]  command computes and returns a list containing all distinct ordered  k-tuples of positive integers whose elements sum equals  . These are known as the compositions of  n .  For some applications, additional constraints are required for the elements of these k-tuples, for example, that they are within a certain range.

The  Composition  procedure solves this problem. Required parameters:  n - a nonnegative integer, - a positive integer. The parameter  res  is the optional parameter (by default  res is  ). If  res  is a number, all elements of  k-tuples must be greater than or equal  res .  If  res  is a range  a .. b ,   all elements of  k-tuples must be greater than or equal  a  and  less than or equal  b .  Composition(n,k,1)  is equivalent to  combinat[composition](n,k) .


The code of the procedure:

Composition := proc (n::nonnegint, k::posint, res::{range, nonnegint} := 0)

local a, b, It, L0; 

if res::nonnegint then a := res; b := n-(k-1)*a  else a := lhs(res); b := rhs(res) fi;

if b < a or b*k < n then return `No solutions` fi; 

It := proc (L)

local m, j, P, R, i, N;

m := nops(L[1]); j := k-m; N := 0;

for i to nops(L) do

R := n-`+`(op(L[i]));

if R <= b*j and a*j <= R then N := N+1;

P[N] := [seq([op(L[i]), s], s = max(a, R-b*(j-1)) .. min(R, b))] fi;


[seq(op(P[s]), s = 1 .. N)];

end proc;

L0 := [[]];


end proc:


Three simple examples:

Composition(10,3); ``;   # All terms greater than or equal 0

Composition(10,3, 2);   # All terms greater than or equal 2

Composition(10,3, 2..4);   # All terms greater than or equal 2 and less than or equal to 4 



A more complex example. The problem - to find all the numbers in the range  1 .. 99999999  whose digits sum is equal to 21 .

Each number is represented by a list of digits from left to right, replacing missing digits at the left with zeros.

M:=Composition(21,8, 0..9):  

nops(M);  # The number of solutions

[seq(M[1+100000*i], i=0..9)]; # 10 solutions from the list M starting the first one

seq(add(%[i,k]*10^(8-k), k=1..8),i=1..nops(%));  # Conversion into numbers



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