Question: How to do composition without substitution

i have a sense that substitution represent associative x*y and x+y

is my understanding correct?

if i change associative property to gcd and lcd,

how to do composition?

if associative is a pair of function, x+y, x*y

does it mean that non associative should also a pair


is it possible replace substitution with two operation x+y and x*y?

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