Dark Energy

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Hello Friends

I have a critical problem that I wish to solve it with maple

suppose we have a list like following: y_obs=(2,4,8,7,9,52,35,478,52) and corresponding variance σy=(.2,.3,.5,.87,.1.2,.22,.78,.99,1.5)
we know y as the function of x described such as y_theoric=x+p and minimizing X is

X=Sigma [(y_theoric-y_obs)^2]/σy which includes the sum of nine numbers...

the question is:

How we can find p from likelihood function and plot general behavior of y versus of x through two above series?

for example this solution used in article under the names Hubble parameter data constraints on dark energy by Yun Chen and Bhatra Ratra (Physics Letters B)

Thank you

 

Hello my friends

I have a problem with initial condition for below system of differential equation

sys := {6*(diff(a(t), t))^2+12*a(t)*(diff(a(t), t$2))-3*a(t)^2*phi(t)^(-2*c)*sqrt(1-alpha*(diff(phi(t), t))^2), 2*c*a(t)^3*phi(t)^(-2*c-1)*sqrt(1-alpha*(diff(phi(t), t))^2)-3*alpha*a(t)^2*phi(t)^(-2*c)*(diff(a(t), t))*(diff(phi(t), t))/sqrt(1-alpha*(diff(phi(t), t))^2)-alpha*a(t)^3*phi(t)^(-2*c)*(diff(phi(t), t$2))/sqrt(1-alpha*(diff(phi(t), t))^2)+2*c*alpha*a(t)^3*phi(t)^(-2*c-1)*(diff(phi(t), t))^2/sqrt(1-alpha*(diff(phi(t), t))^2)-alpha^2*a(t)^3*phi(t)^(-2*c)*(diff(phi(t), t))^2*(diff(phi(t), t$2))/(1-alpha*(diff(phi(t), t))^2)^(3/2), R(t) = 6*((diff(a(t), t))^2/a(t)^2+(diff(a(t), t$2))/a(t)), W(t) = -phi(t)^(-2*c)*sqrt(1-alpha*(diff(phi(t), t))^2)/(1/a(t)^3+a(t)^3+phi(t)^(-2*c)/sqrt(1-alpha*(diff(phi(t), t))^2))}

I set {c,alpha}={1,1} but initial conditon is problem ... since I got the following message from maple to illustrate diagrams of W(t), a(t) and even phi(t)

Warning, cannot evaluate the solution past the initial point, problem may be complex, initially singular or improperly set up
 

please help me.

 

with the best regard

 

hello my friends

I have a critical problem to solve below the system of differential equations

-(9/14)*R(t)^(19/14)-(285/196)*(diff(R(t), t, t))/R(t)^(9/14)+(2565/2744)*(diff(R(t), t))^2/R(t)^(23/14) = -k*(4*lambda+1/a(t)^3)

and R(t) = 6*((diff(a(t), t))^2/a(t)^2+(diff(a(t), `$`(t, 2)))/a(t))

I need to find form of a(t) numerically from set of differential equatios

plz help me as soon as possible

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