Sorry about my late answer. I was sleeping :)
Well a huge difference between your error and mine is, however, that I don't even get a popup. Nothing happens my computer shows the working symbol next to the mouse for a few seconds and then it just stops. And nothing is opened not even in "Task Manager"
As for my OS. I am running on Windows 10, 64-bit, Professional.
I have Nvidia GeForce GTX 980, with the exact same driver update as yours. However, the date you mentioned doen't make much sence to me? According to "Nvidia Control Panel" the latest driver which we both have installed was released, 24. January 2017.
I updated 25. January 2017, And I haven't used the program between the update and now. I used Maple 2016 the last time 8:36 PM 24/1-2017. So just before the update to nvidia graphics driver.
I have also updated my Java just in case that was the problem, since the program path, mentions "javaw.exe." but that didn't help either
I however don't have the luxury of having a second program. Since mine is paid through my school and is only a borrowed licence.
But as you say it's kinda interesting that Maple 18 works, when neither 2015 or 2016 do. I don't know anything about Maple 18, but does it run on a different kind of setup/engine?
I however fear that you are quite correct in your assumption that this is gonna be quite a pain in the "***" to fix.
I hope it's something so simple as a folder somewhere in my windows folder that doesn't get deleted during the normal uninstall and I just have to find it and delete it manually and then reinstall the program and everything works like a charm again.