## how to draw these 3 lines and then project them on...

how to draw these 3 lines and then project them on the plans Oxy,Oxz,Oyz;
3 given lines a := [3*t-7, -2*t+4, 3*t+4]; b := [m+1, 2*m-9, -m-12];c:={x = -200/29-2*t, y = 114/29+3*t, z = 119/29+4*t}, how to show these lines and the projections on the 3 planes ? Thank you.

## How to show that these 2 procedures are correct or...

A := [1, -2, 3]:u := `<,>`(0, -2, 2):v := `<,>`(5, 8, -3):
PL := proc (A, u, v) local d, Det, AP, t, U, V;
AP := `<,>`(x-A[1], y-A[2], z-A[3]);
Matrix(`<|>`(`<,>`(AP), `<,>`(u), `<,>`(v)));
Det := LinearAlgebra:-Determinant(%); d := igcd(coeff(Det, x), coeff(Det, y), coeff(Det, z), tcoeff(Det));
print(`Une équation cartésienne du plan est :`);
t := Det/d; print([t = 0]);
print('Une*représentation*paramétrique*du*plan*est; -1');
U := convert(u, list); V := convert(v, list);
[x = lambda*U[1]+mu*V[1]+A[1], y = lambda*U[2]+mu*V[2]+A[2], z = lambda*U[3]+mu*V[3]+A[3]] end proc;
PL(A, u, v);

plan3p := proc (A::list, B::list, C::list)
local d, M, N, P, Mat, Det, t, U, V;
M := `<,>`(x-A[1], B[1]-C[1], C[1]-A[1]); N := `<,>`(y-A[2], B[2]-C[2], C[2]-A[2]); P := `<,>`(z-A[3], B[3]-C[3], C[3]-A[3]);
Mat := Matrix([M, N, P]);
Det := LinearAlgebra:-Determinant(%);
d := igcd(coeff(Det, x), coeff(Det, y), coeff(Det, z), tcoeff(Det));
print(`Une équation cartésienne du plan est :`);
t := Det/d; print([t = 0]); print('Une*représentation*paramétrique*du*plan*est; -1');
U := A-B; V := B-C;
[x = lambda*U[1]+mu*V[1]+A[1], y = lambda*U[2]+mu*V[2]+A[2], z = lambda*U[3]+mu*V[3]+A[3]] end proc;
A := [-6, 3, -2]; B := [5, 2, 1]; C := [2, 5, 2];plan3p(A, B, C);
How to know if these procedures are correct or not. Thank you.

## How to find an orthogonal circle ? ...

We consider a fixed circle (C) tangent to a fixed line Δ at a given point O of this line.
Circles Γ tangent to circles C in M and to the right Δ in N are studied.
Show that the MN line passes through a fixed point I. Infer that the circles Γ remain orthogonal to a fixed circle.
My code is :
restart; with(geometry);with(plots);
_EnvHorizontalName := 'x';_EnvVerticalName := 'y';
dist := proc (M, N) sqrt(Vdot(expand(M-N), expand(M-N))) end proc;
point(oo, 0, 3); p := 6;
point(N, 5, 0);
line(Delta, y = 0, [x, y]);
para := x^2 = 2*p*y;
solve(subs(x = 5, para), y); point(varpi, 5, 25/12);
line(alpha, [oo, varpi]); k := 3/(25/12);
point(M, (0+5*k)/(1+k), (3+25*k*(1/12))/(1+k));
circle(C, x^2+(y-3)^2 = 9, [x, y]);cir := implicitplot(x^2+(y-3)^2 = 9, x = -5 .. 5, y = -5 .. 7, color = blue);
Para := implicitplot(para, x = -40 .. 40, y = 0 .. 40, linestyle = 3, color = coral);
homothety(J, N, -k, M); coordinates(J);
circle(C1, (y-25/12)^2+(x-5)^2 = (25/12)^2, [x, y]);line(lNJ, [N, J]);
triangle(T1, [J, oo, M]); triangle(T2, [N, varpi, M]);
C1 := implicitplot((y-25/12)^2+(x-5)^2 = (25/12)^2, x = 2 .. 8, y = 0 .. 5, color = magenta);dr1 := draw([oo, Delta, varpi, N, M, J], printtext = true); dr2 := draw([alpha(color = black), lNJ(color = black), T1(color = green, filled = true), T2(color = green, filled = true)]);
inversion(M, M, C);
inversion(N, M, C);
Fig := proc (xOm)
local cir, c2, C2, C1, c3, C3, k, M, N, J, sol, dr, varpi;
global p, para, Para;
sol := solve(subs(x = xOm, para), y);
cir := (y-sol)^2+(x-xOm)^2 = sol^2; c2 := x^2+(y-3)^2 = 9;
geometry:-point(N, xOm, 0); sol := solve(subs(x = xOm, para), y);
geometry:-point(varpi, xOm, sol); k := 3/sol;
geometry:-point(M, xOm*k/(k+1), (3+k*sol)/(k+1));
geometry:-homothety(J, N, -k, M);
c3 := (x-(1/2)*xOm)^2+(y-3)^2 = (1/4)*dist(N, J)^2;
C1 := plots:-implicitplot(cir, x = -xOm .. 3*xOm, y = 0 .. 3*xOm, color = magenta);
C2 := plots:-implicitplot(c2, x = -xOm .. 2*xOm, y = 0 .. 2*xOm, color = blue);
C3 := plots:-implicitplot(c3, x = -xOm .. 2*xOm, y = 0 .. 2*xOm, color = blue);
dr := geometry:-draw([varpi, M, J]);
plots:-display([Para, C2, C1, C3, dr], view = [-xOm .. 3*xOm, -1 .. 3*xOm], axes = normal, scaling = constrained) end proc;

Fig(8);
display([seq(Fig(4+.8*i), i = 4 .. 15)]);
display({C1, Para, cir, dr1, dr2}, view = [-8 .. 8, -1 .. 8], axes = normal, scaling = constrained, size = [500, 500]);
I don't know what is that orthogonal circle to each tangent circles. Thank you to help me.

.

## Bug in the combine command ...

Hi !

Sorry but there is a bug in the "combine" command when combining double summations.
Maple 2017,2018 and 2020 all give me a wrong answer. I have an old version of Maple which gives the correct answer.
I have put an example in the attached file.

bugcombine.mw

Best regards
Réjean

## Why Explore does't work ?...

restart;
with(plots); with(LinearAlgebra);
_EnvHorizontalName := 'x';

_EnvVerticalName := 'y';

x1,y1,x2,y2,x3,y3:=0,-3,3,1,5,-2:
A := [x1, y1]: B := [x2, y2]: C := [x3, y3]:

Barycentre := proc (A, B, t) description "Barycentre de 2 points A(1) et B(t) dans le rapport t";
return [(1-t)*A[1]+t*B[1], (1-t)*A[2]+t*B[2]] end proc;
ellip := proc (r1, r2) local a, b, c, d, e, f, D, E, F, eq1, eq2, eq3, eq4, eq5, eq6, x0, y0, EE, r3, sol, Ff, Tg;
global A, B, C;
r3 := -1/(r2*r1);
D := Barycentre(C, B, 1/(1-r1)); E := Barycentre(A, C, 1/(1-r2)); F := Barycentre(B, A, 1/(1-r3));
Ff := proc (x, y) options operator, arrow; a*x^2+2*b*x*y+c*y^2+2*d*x+2*e*y+f end proc;
Tg := proc (x0, y0, x, y) options operator, arrow; a*x*x0+b*(x*y0+y*x0)+c*y*y0+d*(x+x0)+e*(y+y0)+f end proc;
eq1 := Ff(D[1], D[2]);
eq2 := Ff(E[1], E[2]);
eq3 := Ff(F[1], F[2]);
eq4 := Tg(F[1], F[2], x1, y1);
eq5 := Tg(D[1], D[2], x2, y2);
eq6 := Tg(E[1], E[2], x3, y3);
sol := op(solve([eq1, eq2, eq3, eq4, eq5, eq6], [a, b, c, d, e]));
assign(sol);
EE := subs(f = 1, Ff(x, y) = 0) end proc;

ellip(-1, -7); tri := plot([A, B, C, A], color = blue):

po := plot([A, B, C], style = point, symbolsize = 15, symbol = solidcircle, color = red);
tp := textplot([[A[], "A"], [B[], "B"], [C[], "C"]], 'align' = {'above', 'left'});
x := 'x'; y := 'y';
ELL := seq(implicitplot(ellip(-7/11-(1/11)*j, -1/17-3*j*(1/17)), x = 0 .. 5, y = -3 .. 1, color = ColorTools:-Color([rand()/10^12, rand()/10^12, rand()/10^12])), j = 1 .. 17);
display([tri, ELL, po, tp], view = [-.5 .. 5.5, -4 .. 1.5], axes = none, scaling = constrained, size = [500, 500]);
Explore(implicitplot(ellip(r1, r2), x = 0 .. 5, y = -3 .. 1), parameters = [r1 = -2.18 .. -.7, r2 = -3 .. -.23]);
Can you tell me why this last instruction does't work ? Thank you.

## Tensor summation...

Hi, I have a problem with tensor calculus. Please guide me.

I have two Tensors B[mu, nu] and A[~mu, ~nu].

Furthermore, I have two mixed tensors as U[~1, mu, nu] and U[~2,mu,nu]

rho, mu, and nu can run from 1 to 2. Hence, A, B, and both Us are 2*2 matrices.

Note that there was only one U, but since it is a mixed tensor, hence I have separated it into two tensors for making it easy.

Now I want to compute the following summation:

U[~rho,mu,nu] U[~alpha,beta,gamma] B[rho,alpha] A[~mu,~beta] A[~nu,~gamma].

Maple must give a number for rho, mu, nu, alpha, beta, and gamma (which can take 1 and 2) and compute "all" possible summations. Since the result will be just "a number", hence I could not use TensorArray.

How can I do it and get a result?

The forms of all tensors are in the attached maple file:
question.mw

## Finding a conic tangents to 3 sites of a triangle ...

We consider a triangle ABC, its circumscribed circle (O), of radius R, its inscribed circle (I) of centre I. We designate by α, β, γ the points of contact of BC, CA, AB with the circle (I), by A', B', C' the points of meeting other than A, B, C, of AI, BI, CI with the circle (O), by the media of BC, CA, AB.
.Establish that there is a conic (E), focus I, tangent to βγ, γα, αβ.
My code :

restart;
with(geometry);
with(plots); _local(gamma);
_EnvHorizontalName := x; _EnvVerticalName := y;
alias(coor = coordinates);
point(A, -5, -5); point(B, 7, -1); point(C, 1, 5);
triangle(ABC, [A, B, C]); circumcircle(_O, ABC, 'centername' = OO); incircle(_I, ABC, 'centername' = Io);
line(lBC, [B, C]); sol := solve({Equation(_I), Equation(lBC)}, {x, y}); point(alpha, subs(sol, x), subs(sol, y));
line(lCA, [C, A]); sol := solve({Equation(_I), Equation(lCA)}, {x, y}); point(beta, subs(sol, x), subs(sol, y));
line(lAB, [A, B]); sol := solve({Equation(_I), Equation(lAB)}, {x, y}); point(gamma, subs(sol, x), subs(sol, y));
line(lAO, [A, OO]); intersection(Ap, lAO, lBC);
line(lBO, [B, OO]); intersection(Bp, lBO, lCA);
line(lCO, [C, OO]); intersection(Cp, lCO, lAB);
midpoint(l, B, C); midpoint(m, A, C); midpoint(n, A, B);
triangle(T, [alpha, beta, gamma]);
dr := draw([ABC(color = blue), _O(color = red), _I(color = magenta), lAO(color = black), lBO(color = black), lCO(color = black), T(color = red), alpha, beta, gamma, Ap, Bp, Cp, l, m, n], printtext = true);
display([dr], axes = normal, scaling = constrained, size = [800, 800]);
How to find the Equation of (E); Thank you.

## plot output of an integral ...

how this integration can be computed and plotted? tnx in advance

 > restart:Digits:=20:
 > T := 10^(-6); delta := 10; m := 1; alpha:= 75/10; v := 65; mu := 8;
 (1)
 > z := sqrt((omega^2 - 4*m^2)/alpha^2 - v^2/alpha^2*(4 *delta/alpha*tan(theta)^2 - v^4/alpha^4*tan(theta)^4))
 (2)
 > a := sec(theta)/sqrt(2)*sqrt((2 *delta)/alpha - v^2/alpha^2*tan(theta)^2 + z)
 (3)
 > f1 := 1/(exp(( omega/2 - mu)/T) + 1); f2 := 1/(exp((- (omega/2) - mu)/T) + 1);
 (4)
 > A1 := evalf(-(f1 - f2)*abs(omega/(4*a*alpha*cos(theta)^2*(-delta+ a^2 *alpha* cos(theta)^2) + 2*a*v^2*sin(theta)^2 + 1/10000)))
 (5)
 > b := sec(theta)/sqrt(2)*sqrt((2*delta)/alpha - v^2/alpha^2*tan(theta)^2 - z)
 (6)
 > f3 := 1/(exp(( omega/2 - mu)/T) + 1); f4 := 1/(exp((- (omega/2) - mu)/T) + 1);
 (7)
 > A2 := evalf(-(f3 - f2)*abs(omega/(4*b*alpha*cos(theta)^2*(-delta+ b^2 *alpha* cos(theta)^2) + 2*b*v^2*sin(theta)^2 + 1/10000)))
 (8)
 > plot(int(A1+A2,theta=0..2*Pi),omega=0..50);
 >

## Why this "Error, invalid input: subs received 1, w...

I would like to show : in a quadrilateral circumscribed to an ellipse, the line passing through the middle of the diagonals passes through the centre of the ellipse.
My code is :

restart; with(geometry): with(plots): `local`(O):
_EnvHorizontalName := x: _EnvVerticalName := y:

alias(coor = coordinates):
ell := x^2/a^2+y^2/b^2 = 1:
point(P1,a*cos(omega), b*sin(omega)):
point(P2,a*cos(omega-(1/2)*Pi), b*sin(omega-(1/2)*Pi)):
point(P3,a*cos(omega+(8/7)*Pi), b*sin(omega+(8/7)*Pi)):
point(P4,a*cos(omega+5*Pi*(1/2)), b*sin(omega+5*Pi*(1/2))):
a := 5: b := 3: omega := (1/5)*Pi:
Ell := implicitplot(ell, x = -a .. a, y = -b .. b, color = red):
dr := draw([seq(P || k, k = 1 .. 4)], axes = normal, printtext = true):

for i from 1 to 4 do tgP||i := x*coor(P||i)[1]/a^2+y*coor(P||i)[2]/b^2 = 1 od:
poly := Matrix([coor(P1), coor(P2), coor(P3), coor(P4)]):
Quadri := polygonplot(poly, axes = normal, color = "DarkGreen", transparency = .8):

with(combinat): with(ListTools):
L := [1, 2, 3, 4]:
for i from 1 to 4 do Rotate(L, i)[1] od:
for i to 4 do solve({(tgP || Rotate)(L, i)[1], tgP || i}, {x, y}); point(S || i, subs(%, x), subs(%, y)); coor(S || i) end do;
Error, invalid input: subs received 1, which is not valid for its 1st argument
#otherwise
solve({tgP1, tgP2}, {x, y}): point(S1, subs(%, x), subs(%, y)); coor(S1):
S1
solve({tgP2, tgP3}, {x, y}): point(S2, subs(%, x), subs(%, y)); coor(S2):
S2
solve({tgP3, tgP4}, {x, y}): point(S3, subs(%, x), subs(%, y)); coor(S3):
S3
solve({tgP1, tgP4}, {x, y}): point(S4, subs(%, x), subs(%, y)); coor(S4):
S4

poly := Matrix([coor(S1), coor(S2), coor(S3), coor(S4)]):
Quadri2 := polygonplot(poly, axes = normal, color = "DarkGreen", transparency = .9):
#dr2:=draw(seq(S||k,k =1..4), axes = normal, printtext = true):
line(diag13, [S1, S3]): line(diag24, [S2, S4]): midpoint(M1, S1, S3): midpoint(M2, S4, S2):
line(Lm, [M1, M2]):
dr2 := draw([S1, S2, S3, S4, M1, M2, Lm(color = black), diag13, diag24], axes = normal, printtext = true):
for i from 1 to 4 do
TgP||i := implicitplot(tgP||i, x = -a-5 .. a+5, y = -b-5 .. b+5, color = blue) od:
display([Ell, seq(TgP||i,i=1..4), Quadri, Quadri2,dr,dr2], view = [-a-5 .. a+3, -b-2 .. b+2],
scaling = constrained, size = [700, 700]); Thank you for your answere.

## Symbols on the polar grid...

Hello. Plotting a graph in the polar coordinate system using polar plot (example). Is it possible to make it display 90 degrees instead of Pi/2, 45 degrees instead of Pi/4, and so on. Thanks

## Phase Plane between two functions...

hello guys,

I want to plot the phase plane between F and m when:

F := 736*R^4/sqrt((-1380*Pi*R*m(r)^3 + 368*R^4 - 1587*m(r)^2*R^2 + 1280*m(r)^2*a)^2);
R := X^(1/3)/(-l^2 + 4*a) - 3*l^2*m(r)^2/X^(1/3);
X := m(r)*l^2*(sqrt((27*l^2*m(r)^4 - 16*a^2*l^2 + 64*a^3)/(-l^2 + 4*a)) + 4*a)*(-l^2 + 4*a)^2;

and

m := (l^2*r^2 + r^4 + a*l^2)/(2*l^2*r)

for positive constant a and l

thanks

## Finding the location of the poles of a normal chor...

How to find the location of the poles of a normal chord in an ellipse ?
Here is my code :

restart; with(geometry); with(plots); `local`(O);
_EnvHorizontalName := x; _EnvVerticalName := y;
corde := a*x/cos(theta)-b*y/sin(theta) = a^2-b^2;
isolate(corde, a/cos(theta));
Error, (in isolate) a*x/cos(theta)-b*y/sin(theta) = a^2-b^2 does not contain a/cos(theta)
eq1 := (a^2-b^2)*X/a^2 = a/cos(theta);
c := solve(eq1, cos(theta));
eq2 := (a^2-b^2)*Y/b^2 = -b/sin(theta);
s := solve(eq2, sin(theta));
lieu := simplify(expand((a^2-b^2)^2*X^2*Y^2*(c^2+s^2 = 1)));
allvalues(eliminate({eq1, eq2}, theta))[1][2];
ell := x^2/a^2+y^2/b^2 = 1;
P := [a*cos(theta), b*sin(theta)];
tgP := x*P[1]/a^2+y*P[2]/b^2 = 1;

sol := solve({corde, ell}, {x, y});
tgP1 := simplify(x*rhs(sol[2][1])/a^2+y*rhs(sol[2][2])/b^2 = 1);

Drawing in a case
a := 5; b := 3; theta := (1/6)*Pi;

line(l1, corde); conic(co, ell);
Pole(P1, l1, co); coordinates(P1);
a := 5; b := 3; theta := (1/6)*Pi;
Ell := implicitplot(ell, x = -a .. a, y = -b .. b, color = red);
Cor := implicitplot(corde, x = -a-1 .. a, y = -b-1 .. b, color = blue);
TgP := implicitplot(tgP, x = 0 .. 10, y = -5 .. 10, color = magenta);
TgP1 := implicitplot(tgP1, x = -5 .. 10, y = -5 .. 10, color = magenta);
lieu := subs(X = x, Y = y, lieu);
subs(x = 125*sqrt(3)*(1/24), y = -27/8, lieu);
Lieu := implicitplot(lieu, x = -a .. a, y = -b .. b, color = green);
dr := draw(P1);
display([Ell, Cor, Lieu, TgP, TgP1, dr], axes = normal, view = [-10 .. 10, -10 .. 10], scaling = constrained);

Why the drawin of the location (lieu) does not appear ? Thank you.

## plotting fsolve for given values...

Hi,

I have two coupled algebraic equations (not differential equations; but only simple algebraic equations; call them "equ1" and "equ2") in which there are three parameters: "x", "y", and "z".

I want to use "fsolve" (Numerical solve) for solving them and then plotting. But since there are three parameters and two equations hence one of the parameters must be given. I want to give a range for "z", for example [2..9], and step size, for example "0.5", such that maple first puts "2" in both equations and solve them numerically and get the values of "x" and "y" and then record them, and then set the value "2.5" for "z" and again repeat the above cycle until the value "z=9". Finally plot both "x" and "y" in terms of "z".

How do I write this?

## caculation of an elliptic PDEs system...

Hi everyone

I wonder if the following elliptic PDEs system can be caculated by Maple 2018.

The PDEs system is

where

Maple sketched solutions of the above system, but unfortunately main portions (sine portion) of all the solutions seemed to overlap together.

Is it possible to output all the solutions filling the target region (or at least not overlapping) by revising the code?

I am not the sure if the overlap is caused by the boundary conditions(BC) or caused by the elliptic PDEs system??

Particularly, I do not understand how (D[2](x))(xi, 0) = 0 and (D[2](y))(xi, 0) = 0  work in the BCs. Is there any paper or textbook explaining this setup??

The code is as follows (or the code can be downloaded from attatched mw QUESTION_20210423_001.mw):

```restart;
with(plots);

alpha04 := (diff(x(xi, eta), eta))^2+(diff(y(xi, eta), eta))^2;

beta04 := (diff(x(xi, eta), xi))*(diff(x(xi, eta), eta))+(diff(y(xi, eta), xi))*(diff(y(xi, eta), eta));

gamma04 := (diff(x(xi, eta), xi))^2+(diff(y(xi, eta), xi))^2;

PDE04 := {alpha04*(diff(x(xi, eta), xi, xi))-2*beta04*(diff(x(xi, eta), xi, eta))+gamma04*(diff(x(xi, eta), eta, eta)) = 0, alpha04*(diff(y(xi, eta), xi, xi))-2*beta04*(diff(y(xi, eta), xi, eta))+gamma04*(diff(y(xi, eta), eta, eta)) = 0};

IBC04 := {x(0, eta) = eta, x(1, eta) = eta, x(xi, 0) = sin((2.0*Pi)*xi), y(0, eta) = eta, y(1, eta) = eta, y(xi, 0) = 100*xi, (D[2](x))(xi, 0) = 0, (D[2](y))(xi, 0) = 0};

pds04 := pdsolve(PDE04, IBC04, numeric, spacestep = 1/50);

xCurve04 := plots[display]([seq(pds04:-plot(x, eta = i), i = 0 .. 10)]);

yCurve04 := plots[display]([seq(pds04:-plot(y, eta = (1/10)*i), i = 0 .. 10)]);```

## Straight line with fixed direction...

We give a line (D) and a point A located at a distance AH=h from D. A constant angle of magnitude alpha pivots to its apex A and we call B and C the points where its sides cut the line D. Let O be the center of the circle circumscribed to the triangle ABC.
Demonstrate that the B and C tangents to the O circle keep a fixed direction.
Here is my code which don't work for slopes are not equal.

restart; with(plots): with(geometry):unprotect(D):
_EnvHorizontalName := 'x':_EnvVerticalName := 'y':
line(D, y = (1/2)*x-1); point(A, 5, 5); PerpendicularLine(lp, A, D); h := distance(A, D); intersection(H, D, lp);
alpha := (1/16)*Pi;
rotation(lp1, lp, (1/6)*Pi, 'clockwise', A); rotation(lp2, lp1, (1/6)*Pi-alpha, 'clockwise', A); FindAngle(lp1, lp2); evalf(%);
intersection(B, D, lp1); intersection(C, D, lp2);
triangle(T, [A, B, C]);
circumcircle(Elc, T, 'centername' = OO);
TangentLine(tgB, B, Elc); TangentLine(tgC, C, Elc);
evalf(slope(tgB)); evalf(slope(tgC));
dr := draw([D(color = blue), lp(color = red), Elc(color = green), A, B, C, T(color = black), H, tgB, tgC], printtext = true);

display([dr], axes = none, scaling = constrained);
Fig := proc (k) local dr, Elc, B, C, lp1, lp2; global D, A, lp, H, alpha; geometry:-rotation(lp1, lp, (1/6)*Pi+k, 'clockwise', A); geometry:-rotation(lp2, lp1, (1/6)*Pi-alpha+k, 'clockwise', A); geometry:-intersection(B, D, lp1); geometry:-intersection(C, D, lp2); geometry:-triangle(T, [A, B, C]); geometry:-circumcircle(Elc, T, 'centername' = OO); geometry:-TangentLine(tgB, B, Elc); geometry:-TangentLine(tgC, C, Elc); dr := geometry:-draw([D(color = blue), lp(color = red), Elc(color = green), A, B, C, T(color = black), H, tgB, tgC], printtext = true); plots:-display([dr], axes = none, scaling = constrained) end proc;
iframes := 10;

display([seq(Fig((1/12)*Pi+i/(10*iframes)), i = 1 .. iframes)], insequence, scaling = constrained);
How to improve this code ? Thank you.

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