Carl Love

Carl Love

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8 years, 246 days
Natick, Massachusetts, United States
My name was formerly Carl Devore.

MaplePrimes Activity

These are answers submitted by Carl Love

I believe (not sure) that the variable-scoping problem that you originally reported (which is now at the bottom of your current Question---thanks for not deleting it) is not as general as you originally thought. I think that it's specific to using the name of a local object-submodule as an implied type, which is a quite special circumstance. Below, I show a technique (which is a bit too formal and builtin-by-design to be called a "workaround") that avoids this problem yet

  1. still allows you to use a type specifier on the declaration,
  2. keeps the object module as a local sibling to the exported submodules.

SInce your workaround doesn't address that point 1, and since my technique is builtin-by-design, and since I've thought about this on and off for 6 hours, this Answer is still worth posting.

First, some tips on using A:-B references: I think that it's usually a bad idea to use a reference to a module named A in the code of itself. If is local to A, then using A:-B is very likely to cause an error (because the syntax A:-B usually implies that is an export of A); whereas using without prefix is, of course, usually fine (except for this "type" issue---discussed at length below), just like the locals in most languages. If is a module local (or export), and there's a need to distinguish it from a that is a procedure local of one of the parent module's procedures, then the special syntax thismodule:-B can be used. However, unfortunately, there's no prefix such as `this_module's_parent`:-, which would apply in your case (where is the parent module of submodule A1).

Here's my technique. I don't have time to explain it fully at the moment, however feel free to ask any questions about it. The key point is that to be effectively useful, a type name must essentially be a global keyword. And look at the help pages ?ModuleType, ?ModuleLoad, and ?TypeTools. I didn't include anything equivalent to your submodule A2 because its presence added nothing of interest to your example.

interface(warnlevel= 4):
kernelopts(assertlevel= 2):

A:= module()
       module_A1:= module()
               boo:= proc()
                   local X::':-person_type':= Object(person_type);
                   return 1
               end proc;
       end module
       person_type:= module()
           option object;
              ModuleLoad::static:= ()->
                  TypeTools:-AddType(':-person_type', person_type)
      end module
end module:


It's a stochastic matrix, therefore its eigenvalue of largest magnitude is 1 and all other eigenvalues have magnitude <= 1. See this Wikipedia article: Stochastic matrix

It can be done like this:

sys:= {bcs||(1..2), ode||(3..4)}: 
SFvsNU:= Nu->
        diff(f(eta), eta$2),
        dsolve(eval(sys, [N= Nu, a= 1, S= 1]), numeric)(0)
plot(SFvsNU, 1..10);

Both jobs can be done by the same command:

collect(numer(B(4)), x, factor);
collect(F(5), x, factor); #F(5) could also be numer(F(5));

If you want to keep the p factors in each term grouped together, then

collect(numer(B(4)), x, ``@factor);

In the future, please attach a worksheet (using the green uparrow) or include plaintext code of your expressions such that we can cut and paste it into Maple.

You can move mod to the end, like this:

solve(5*x=7, x) mod 16;

That'll give you simply 11.

You can modify mod itself so that it always returns an expression for "all solutions" like this:

modp__orig:= eval(modp):
modp:= proc(e,p) 
local r, Z:= `tools/genglobal`(_Z);
    assume(Z, integer);
    r:= modp__orig(e,p);
    try r+p*Z catch: r end try
end proc:
protect(modp, modp__orig):

solve(5*x=7, x) mod 16;
                          11 + 16 _Z0

If you're using mods instead of the default modp, then replace modp with mods in all the above.

Like this:

deg:= n-> cat("", n, "&deg;"):
    t, t= 0..2*Pi, 
    axis[angular]= [  #or axis[2]
                k*Pi/16= `if`(irem(k,4)=0, typeset(deg(k*45/4)), ""), 
                k= 0..31
        gridlines= [32, majorlines= 4]

I don't think that there's any good reason why the angle axis is axis[2] rather than axis[1]. That's just the way it is. [Edit: Or you can use axis[angular] instead of axis[2], but that's limited to when axiscoordinates= polar. If using axis[2], then the options work for any 2D plot.]

[Edit: Of course, Kitonum's angularunit= degrees is simpler, but if you want the degree symbol (superscript small o), then I think that you still need the tickmarks option. And since the tickmarks option changes the gridlines, to restore the normal gridlines, I think that you need the gridlines option also.]

I will answer your questions about the scope rules, but there's two preliminary issues to clear up first:

Packages vs modules: Packages and modules are not exactly the same thing. The rules below apply to all modules, regardless of whether they are also packages. The vast majority of modules are not packages, so it would be best if you didn't confuse the issue by using the word "package" for this.

local vs global: Here I am contrasting only the keywords local and global rather than contrasting the concepts of "local variable" and "global variable". It's natural to think that these keywords do parallel things, each "creating" a type of variable. However, that isn't true. In my opinion, global should not be used. The alternative is shown below. I'm not saying that global variables shouldn't be used, just that the keyword global shouldn't be used.

Scope rules:

You asked:

  • Is the local variable XM accessible to the procedures used in SUBPACKAGE1?

Your tentative answer for this one was wrong. Yes, it is accessible simply as XM, no matter how deeply nested the procedures and submodules are.

  • Is the local variable X1 accessible to the procedure used in MAINPACKAGE ?

You are correct that it isn't (ordinarily) accessible. (For debugging purposes it's possible to make it accessible by setting an option that I won't mention here.)

  • Is the global variable YM accessible to the procedures used in SUBPACKAGE1? 
    Is the global variable Y1 accessible to the procedure used in MAINPACKAGE ? 

Global variables are accessible anywhere, regardless of whether they're declared with global. If there's a need to distinguish between a local x and a global x, or if an assignment is being made to global x, use the syntax :-x.

  • Is the export variable ZM accessible to the procedures used in SUBPACKAGE1? yes
    Is the export variable Z1 accessible to the procedure used in MAINPACKAGE ? yes with the syntax SUBPACKAGE:-Z1

Your tentative answers to those two are correct; however, for the second question, it makes me cringe that you call it a "package" instead of a module. It would be best if you simply forgot about packages, at least until you've mastered modules.

Your matrix P isn't necessarily stochastic, i.e., its rows don't necessarily sum to 1. You can make it stochastic by redefining some variables, such as

pi[1,2]:= 1-pi[1,1]:
pi[2,2]:= 1-pi[2,1]:

That'll take care of the first two rows. Rows 3 & 4 have many more variables. Did you really intend to use both rho and as variables?

If you make the matrix stochastic in this manner, your procedure will take about 30 seconds.

Another issue: This is apparently not a problem in your procedure, but I'd recommend against using the use command in a procedure. Instead, use a uses clause, as in

steadyStateVector:= proc(P::Matrix(square))
uses LA= LinearAlgebra;
local n:= upperbound(P)[1];
    LA:-LeastSquares(<P - LA:-IdentityMatrix(n) | <1$n>>^+, <0$n, 1>)^+
end proc


steadyStateVector:= proc(P::Matrix(square))
uses LinearAlgebra;
local n:= upperbound(P)[1];
    LeastSquares(<P - IdentityMatrix(n) | <1$n>>^%T, <0$n, 1>)^%T
end proc


You say that you tried the unassign command and that it didn't work. I suspect that you tried


However, (and unfortunately) the correct syntax is


A more commonly used alternative to unassign has already been mentioned:

phi:= 'phi';

(Indeed, given that the unassign command requires the quotes, I don't even see the point for its existence.)

An efficient way to do this is to use a little-known Maple data structure called a heap. A heap is like a stack or a queue except that the total ordering of the elements is determined by a user-supplied function rather than by arrival time.

SeqA:= proc(n::posint)
uses NT= NumberTheory;
    k, p:= 1, #current and initial value 
    A:= Array(1..1, [p]), #storage for sequence
    #structure that tracks "least entry not previously used this way": 
    H:= heap[new]((i,j)-> `if`(A[i]=A[j], i>j, A[i]>A[j])),
    N:= table(sparse) #non-novel entries
    for k to n-1 do
        A(k+1):= `if`(N[p]=0, NT:-tau(p), p + A[heap[extract](H)]);
        N[p]:= (); p:= A[k+1]; heap[insert](k, H)
end proc
1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 4, 3, 5, 2, 4, 6, 4, 7, 2, 5, 7, 11, 2, 6, 8, 
  4, 8, 12, 6, 11, 16, 5, 11, 16, 22, 4, 10, 4, 8, 12, 19, 2, 9, 
  3, 5, 8, 13, 2, 10, 12, 20, 6, 14, 4, 10, 14, 22, 31, 2, 12, 
  14, 24, 8, 18, 6, 14, 20, 31, 42, 8, 19, 27, 4, 16, 20, 32, 6, 
  18, 24, 36, 9, 22, 31, 45, 6, 20, 26, 4, 18, 22, 36, 52, 6, 22, 
  28, 6, 22, 28, 46, 4, 22, 26, 44


Another way to do it is to set A4(0.):= 1. before doing the seq command. This is called setting a remember table value.

Here is a procedure to convert a piecewise expression into a Fortran-compatible procedure that can be differentiated with D. This uses a feature new to Maple 2021, so if you're not using Maple 2021, let me know.

This procedure converts a piecewise *expression* into a procedure that
    1. can be differentiated or partial differentiated with D,
    2. can be converted to Fortran and its derivatives can be
    converted to Fortran.

The optional 2nd argument is a list of the names (optionally with type
specifiers) that will be used as
the parameters of the procedure, and hence the potential variables of
differentiation. Its default value is the nonconstant names that 
appear in the piecewise conditions with hfloat as the type.

This procedure uses a feature new to Maple 2021.
`convert/pwproc`:= proc(
    V::list({name, name::type}):= 
        [indets(indets(P, boolean), And(name, Not(constant)))[]]::~hfloat
option `Author: Carl Love <> 2021-May-9`;
        8= hfloat, #procedure return type
                    if op(0,P)::symbol or nops(P)::odd then P
                    else op(0,P)(op(P), op([0,1],P))
                    ifelse, ':-recurse'
                specfunc(ifelse), convert, `if`
end proc
#The piecewise expression from your Question:
P:= piecewise(
    x <= 0, x^2+x, 
    x < 3*Pi, sin(x), 
    x^2 - 6*x*Pi + 9*Pi^2 - x + 3*Pi
PP:= convert(P, pwproc);
 PP := proc (x::hfloat)::hfloat; options operator, arrow; if x 
    <= 0 then x^2+x else if x < 3*Pi then sin(x) else 
    x^2-6*x*Pi+9*Pi^2-x+3*Pi end if end if end proc

dPP:= D[1](PP); #or simply D(PP)
dPP := proc (x::hfloat) options operator, arrow; if x <= 0 then 
   2*x+1 else if x < 3*Pi then cos(x) else -6*Pi+2*x-1 end if 
   end if end proc

Digits:= 18: #for correct value of Pi as a Fortran "double"
Warning, procedure/module options ignored
      doubleprecision function dPP (x)
        doubleprecision x
        if (x .le. 0.0D0) then
          dPP = 0.2D1 * x + 0.1D1
          if (x .lt. 0.3D1 * 0.314159265358979324D1) then
            dPP = cos(x)
            dPP = -0.6D1 * 0.314159265358979324D1 + 0.2D1 * x - 0.1D1
          end if
        end if

Here are 5 methods for your map_with_index:

map_with_index1:= (f,a)-> (L-> f~(L, [$1..nops(L)]))(convert(a, list)):
map_with_index2:= (f,a)-> [for local i,x in a do f(x,i) od]:
map_with_index3:= (f,a)-> local i:= 0; map(x-> f(x, ++i), a):
map_with_index4:= (f,a)-> 
    (L-> zip(f, L, [$1..nops(L)]))(convert(a, list))
map_with_index5:= (f,a)-> local i; [seq](f(a[i], i), i= 1..nops(a)):
L:= ["a", "b", "c"]:
(print@~map_with_index||(1..5))(`[]`, L);
                 [["a", 1], ["b", 2], ["c", 3]]
                 [["a", 1], ["b", 2], ["c", 3]]
                 [["a", 1], ["b", 2], ["c", 3]]
                 [["a", 1], ["b", 2], ["c", 3]]
                 [["a", 1], ["b", 2], ["c", 3]]

What you call flat_map is not worth writing or even giving a name to in Maple. Instead, in the calling of the 5 procedures above, just change `[]` to1@@0.

Here are 10 ways to extract a sublist based on a predicate:

    remove(`>`, L, "b"),
    remove(x-> x > "b", L),
    remove[2](`<`, "b", L).
    select(`<=`, L, "b"),
    select[2](`>=`, "b", L),
    map(x-> `if`(x > "b", [][], x), L),
    (x-> `if`(x > "b", [][], x))~(L),
    map(x-> if x > "b" then else x fi, L),
    [seq](`if`(x > "b", [][], x), x= L),
    [for x in L do if x > "b" then else x fi od]

 ["a", "b"], ["a", "b"], ["a", "b"] . ["a", "b"], ["a", "b"], 
   ["a", "b"], ["a", "b"], ["a", "b"], ["a", "b"], ["a", "b"]


It'll be useful if we can assume that all variables represent positive numbers. If that assumption is not valid, let me know, and I think that some modification of the techique below will still work.

Outline of my steps coded below:

  1. Replace all variables with the squares of new variables. The new variables have names beginning z. This step removes all radicals from your equations. They are now equations of rational functions.
  2. Subtract one side from the other in each equation. They are now just rational functions implicitly equated to 0.
  3. Extract the numerators. Now we have a system of polynomials implicitly equated to (which I called sysP).
  4. Use the eliminate command to express everything in terms of the two variables that you mentioned.
  5. Replace the new variables with the square roots of the original variables.
sys:= sys1 union sys2:
v:= [indets(sys, name)[]]; 
vz:= subsop~(0= z, v);
sysP:= (numer~@simplify)(subs(v=~ vz^~2, (lhs-rhs)~(sys)), assume= vz::~positive);
#Let's see how complicated those polynomials are.
[degree, length]~([sysP[]]);
           [[2, 101], [2, 109], [26, 418], [26, 414]]

#They're much simpler than I expected, and much simpler than the original
#system! We have 4 short polynomials: 2 of degree 2 and 2 of degree 26.

Sols:= map(
    s-> (lhs^2=rhs^2)~(s[1]) union s[2] =~ 0,
    subs(vz=~ v^~(1/2), [eliminate](sysP, {z[4,1], z[4,2]}))
                  [35, 122754, 205504, 205504]

We get 4 solutions (and it's done with amazing speed---6 seconds in Maple 2021). The first solution is trivial, and also irrelevant under our positivity assumption. The remaining solutions are extremely long, but they do satisfy exactly what you asked for: expression of everything in terms of y[2,1] and y[2,2]. And, amazingly, this has been done without the use of RootOf.


As of Maple 2019 (or perhaps 2018), embedded for loops, such as you show in your Question, are allowed (in 1D input only!). The syntax is:

n:= 7:
a:= [$1..7]:
P:= piecewise(for i to n do x < a[i], y[i](x) od);

This avoids the op([...]) syntax required by seq.

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